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  1. Shortages of Intel's CPUs are expected to worsen in the second quarter compared to the first as demand for Chromebooks, which are mostly equipped with Intel's entry-level processors, enters its best period. Bean counters at Digitimes Research have been adding up some numbers and dividing them by their shoe size and have reached the conclusion that Intel CPUs will see their supply gap shrink by three percent The shortage will be greater for the Core i3. Previously it has been far Core i5 as the series hit hardest by shortages. It all went tits up for Intel in August with major brands such as HP, Dell and Lenovo all experiencing supply gaps of over five percent at their worst. It had been widely believed that the shortages would get better. But the supply gap in the fourth quarter of 2018 still stayed at the same level as that in the third as HP launched a second wave of CPU inventory buildup during the last quarter of the year, prompting other vendors to follow suit. The shortage was particularly hard on Taiwan-based vendors which saw their supply gaps expand from a single digit percentage previously to over 10 per cent in the fourth quarter. With all the impacts, the notebook market continued suffering a four to fiveper cent supply gap in the fourth quarter of 2018. The Core i5 series for mainstream models, and the Atom, Celeron and Pentium series for entry level ones saw the most serious shortages in the second half of 2018. Within the Core i5 family, those based on Kaby Lake R architecture featuring a quad-core design instead of the traditional dual-core one had the worst shortfall as they were key products in Intel's promotional campaign in 2018 and increased the consumption of the company's already limited wafer capacity. Apollo Lake- and Gemini Lake-based processors for the entry-level segment were second worst in terms of shortages as Intel had shifted most of its capacity to make high-end processors that offered better profit. Lenovo, which primarily focuses on mid-range and entry-level models, had a supply gap of hundreds of thousands CPUs in the second half of the year. White-box players in China have even been denied any supply of Intel's entry-level processors since September 2018. One of the main beneficiaries of Intel’s cock up has been AMD which has seen its share in worldwide notebook shipments have also been picking up gradually from only 9.8 per cent in the first quarter of 2018 to 15.8 per cent in the first quarter of 2019. As more Chromebooks are expected to come with AMD processors in the second quarter and many vendors will begin mass shipping AMD-based entry-level notebooks, AMD's share is expected to rise to 18 per cent in the second quarter of 2018. Some analysts are saying that AMD will not be able to capitalise on the mess in the long term. Intel's newly established 14nm capacity to begin contributing shipments, the second quarter is expected to be the peak for AMD's share in worldwide notebook shipments in 2019. Intel is expected to have new 14nm capacity join production in the second half of 2019. Intel's existing 14nm fabs are mainly located in the US and Ireland and the newly expanded capacity in Arizona, the US is expected to begin volume production in July or August, to boost Intel's overall 14nm capacity by 25 per cent and completely resolve the shortage problem. View: Original Article.
  2. Intel originally planned to release its 10nm 'Cannon Lake' processors in 2015. Since then, the chips have been repeatedly delayed, and the company is now on its fourth consecutive 14nm generation. Cannon Lake is now scheduled for 2019. It comes as a surprise then, that the 10nm chips are starting to show up in products that are on sale in China, such as Lenovo's new IdeaPad 330. The laptop is available in the United States as well, but it uses regular old eighth-gen processors. Spotted first by Tom's Hardware, the device includes 4GB RAM, a 500GB HDD, and a Core i3-8121U CPU. The dual-core CPU doesn't have any integrated graphics, or the feature has been disabled. Instead, it uses AMD Radeon RX 540 graphics. Tom's Hardware did indeed confirm with Intel that the 10nm chips are only available in China, but the full specs of the chip are available. The package size is a bit larger than the i3-8130U at 45x24mm, meaning that it won't fit in the same socket. The 15W processor has a Turbo Boost frequency of 3.2GHz, which is 200MHz lower than its Kaby Lake R sibling. Memory bandwidth has been increased to 41.6GB/s from 34.1GB/s, and it has 16 lanes of PCIe 3.0, an increase from 12. Obviously, this is just a Core i3, so the only really exciting thing here is that Intel finally has a 10nm chip on the market, even if it's only in a limited capacity. We'll likely learn more about the upcoming Cannon Lake lineup later this year. Source neowin
  3. Intel announced its Xeon Scalable processor family based Skylake-SP a few weeks back, but today marks the official launch of the platform. These new processors feature a new microarchitecture versus previous-generation Xeons and Intel has revamped the naming convention and arrangement of the product stack as well. Whereas previous-generation Xeon processors carried version, class, and model number designations – for example, Xeon E5-2697 v4 – the Xeon Scalable processor family is now designated by Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze categories, with a single model number. The new naming convention will take some getting used to if you’re already familiar with Intel’s previous-generation Xeons, but it’s relatively straightforward in the grand scheme of things. We will explain shortly... With the Brickley and Grantley-EP platforms, Xeon E7 series processors sat at the top of the stack, followed by Xeon E5s (and Xeon E3s). Moving forward, with this current-generation of Xeon Scalable processors based on the 14nm Skylake-SP microarchitecture and with next-generation Cascade Lake-based Xeons, however, the Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze naming will be used. Xeon Platinum processors obviously sit at the top of the stack, followed by Gold, and so on. Xeon Platinum 81xx series processors will have the most cores – up to 28 (56 threads) – the highest frequencies, dual FMA units, up to three 10.4 GT/s UPI links, and the most socket flexibility, with support for 2, 4, and 8+ socket configurations. The processors support up to 6 memory channels at speeds up to DDR4-2666, and can support up to 1.5TB of memory. Xeon Platinum series processors also feature up to 48 integrated PCI Express 3.0 lanes. Xeon Platinum processors are the cream of the crop and target mission-critical, scale-up, enterprise applications. Xeon Gold 61xx and 51xx series processors will feature up to 22 cores (44 threads), dual FMA units, have two (51xx) or three (61xx) UPI links, support DDR4-2400 (51xx) or DDR4-2666 (61xx) memory, and similar PCI Express 3.0 lane configurations. Xeon Gold 61xx series processors also support 2 or 4 socket configurations. Xeon Gold series processors target high-performance, but more mainstream applications than the higher-end Platinum series. A handful of Xeon Platinum and Gold series processors are also available with integrated Intel Omni-Path Architecture fabric. One of the processors is pictured at the very top of this page that shows the additional Omni-Path connector and we'll outline the full line-up at the end of the piece. Xeon Silver 41xx and Xeon Bronze 31xx series processors have up to 12 and 8 cores, respectively, and both support single or dual socket configurations and have single FMA units. The peak memory speed on the Bronze 31xx series parts drops down to DDR4-2133 and these processors also feature dual, reduced-speed (9.6GT/s) UPI links. Xeon Silver and Bronze series processors target more entry-level enterprise applications, where power efficiency may trump ultimate performance. The new line-up of Intel Xeon Scalable processors are more advanced than the previous-gen in a number of ways. They have more cores, and hence support for more threads. The higher-end parts have faster UPI links, they support more / faster memory channels, and have additional PCI Express lanes. These new Xeon Scalable series processors will also fall into somewhat higher power envelopes, however, and their cache configurations are completely different. More on that a little later though. With each successive generation, Intel’s goal is increase overall throughput. All of the changes mentioned above culminate in a series of processors that can significantly outpace last-year's Broadwell based Xeons. Versus platforms from a decade ago, performance is up roughly 41x, at least according to SPECint (in a 2 socket configuration). The feature set and efficiency of each successive generation is also enhanced, however, and typically improve I/O connectivity, storage performance, virtualization, memory capacity, and a number of other features, over and above CPU performance. Article source - Continue to page 2
  4. Bypass For Windows Update Lock For Next-Gen Processors Found A first workaround for the blocking of Windows Update on Windows 7 or 8.1 PCs with next-generation processors has been discovered. Microsoft blocked the delivery of Windows Updates recently to Windows 7 and 8.1 devices powered by a next-generation processor. The company announced the support change in January 2017. Broken down to the essentials, it means that Intel Kaby Lake and AMD Bristol Ridge processors are only support by Windows 10, and not older versions of Windows. To hammer that home, Microsoft made the decision to block Windows Update on Windows 7 or 8.1 PCs with those next generation processors. The company introduced patches, KB4012218 and KB4012219 for instance, which introduced process generation and hardware support detection on Windows 7 and 8.1 systems. Windows users who run Windows Update get the unsupported hardware error prompt when they try to scan for and download the latest patches for their -- still supported -- operating system. Bypass for Windows Update lock for next-gen processors GitHub user zeffy made the decision to take a closer look at how the actual blocking is done on the operating system level. What he did was the following: Download the Patch KB4012218 from Microsoft. Extract the content of the MSU file using the expand command line tool. Expand basically extracts all files that are part of an update file so that you can analyze each individually. This resulted in a long list of files. He used PowerShell to filter the files for anything starting with "wu" to filter out Windows Update related files. He then ran diff tools to compare the binaries of the files in the new update file with those on the actual operating system. He discovered the dynamic link library wuaueng.dll, and found the two functions IsCPUSupported(void) and IsDeviceServiceable(void) in it. Now that he found the culprits that blocked the installation of updates on machines with next generation processors, he came up with a solution for that. His preferred solution jumps over the whole "IsDeviceServiceable(void)" body so that Windows Update is notified that the CPU on the machine is supported. The solution requires the patching of the dll file. He has uploaded the patched files for 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 to the GitHub project page. The source code has been made available there as well for you to check. The patches come as scripts that you just need to run to make the necessary changes. Windows Update should work just like before then even on Windows 7 or Windows 8.1 systems with next generation processors Attention: it is recommended that you create a backup of the wuaueng.dll file before you patch it. Even better, create a backup of the system partition just to be on the safe side of things. One caveat of the method is that any new version of wuaueng.dll that Microsoft releases requires new patching. Microsoft may device other means to block updates on those systems as well in the future. (via Sergey) Now You: What's your take on Microsoft blocking updates for customer systems? Source
  5. Enthusiasts gather together to build a powerful ARM desktop PC. When he was growing up, a dream of Linux pioneer Linus Torvalds was to acquire the Acorn Archimedes, a groundbreaking personal computer with the first ARM RISC chips. But in 1987, Archimedes wasn’t available to Torvalds in Finland, so he settled for the Sinclair QL. In the meanwhile, the Archimedes failed and disappeared from the scene, killing any chance for ARM chips to dominate PCs. Since then, multiple attempts to put ARM chips in PCs have failed. Outside of a few Chromebooks, most PCs have x86 chips from Intel or AMD. The domination of x86 is a problem for Linaro, an industry organization that advocates ARM hardware and software. Many of its developers use x86 PCs to compile programs for ARM hardware. That’s much like trying to write Windows programs on a Mac. That fact doesn’t sit well with George Grey, CEO of Linaro. “Linus mentioned this a little while ago: How do we get developers to work on ARM first? Why are will still using Intel tools?” Grey asked during a speech at this month’s Linaro Connect conference in Budapest. A powerful Linux laptop or mini-desktop based on an ARM processor needs to built so developers can write and compile applications, he said. “May be we can take a Chromebook design and put more memory, get upstream Linux support on it, and use it as a developer platform for developers to carry to conferences,” Grey said then. To further that idea, a group of ARM hardware enthusiasts gathered in a room at Linaro Connect to conceptualize a powerful ARM PC. The group settled on building a computer like the Intel NUC—a mini-desktop with a powerful board computer in it. The free-flowing session was entertaining, with attendees passionately sharing ideas on the chip, memory, storage, and other components in the PC. The session, which is available on Linaro’s site, also highlighted issues involved in building and supporting an ARM-based PC. There were concerns about whether ARM chips would deliver performance adequate to run powerful applications. There were also concerns about components and about providing a Linux user experience acceptable to users. Also important was building a viable ARM PC that would attract hardware makers to participate in such an effort. One worry was the reaction of the enthusiast audience, who might sound off if an ARM desktop didn’t work properly, putting hardware vendors and chipmakers at the receiving end of criticism and bad press. “Based on a research and efforts today, building an ideal PC is going to be hard,” said Yang Zhang, director of the technologies group at Linaro. Attendees quickly agreed that the ARM PC would need an expandable x86-style board with DDR4 memory DIMM slot, and NVMe or SATA slots for plugging in SSDs or other drives. Other features would include gigabit slots and USB slots. “Definitely, we need to be looking at something with real I/O, not some crappy mobile chipset with soldered-on 2GB of RAM,” one attendee said. (Attendees aren’t identified in the recording of the discussion.) Many ARM-based computer boards like Raspberry Pi 3 and Pine64 can be used as PCs, but have limited expandability and components integrated on the board. They aren’t ideal for PCs handling heavy workloads. Also, Zhang pointed out that LPDDR4, which is used in such “mobile” chipsets, is slower than DDR4 memory, which is why the DIMM slots would be needed on the ARM PC. Next, the discussion shifted to the system-on-chip, and suggestions were made to use CPUs from companies including Marvell and Nvidia. Chips from Qualcomm, Cavium, and HiSilicon weren’t suggested because those companies were uninterested in building a PC-style computer for development with Linaro. Ironically, Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 835 will be used in Windows 10 PCs later this year. An interesting suggestion was Rockchip’s RK3399, which is being used in Samsung’s Chromebook Pro, which has PCI-Express and USB 3.0. Google and Samsung have been putting in a decent amount of work for Linux support on the chip. But it still is a mobile chip, and not designed for full-powered ARM desktop. “I have a 24-core Opteron right. To replace that I would need a 64-core Cortex A73 or something, which doesn’t exist,” said the attendee who suggested the RK3399. The discussion became a battle between server chips and mobile chips, which each had their issues. While the server chips boast good software support, they are expensive. The mobile chips are cheap but have poor Linux OS support. Software support would need to be added by independent developers, and that can be a considerable amount of work. In 2015, 96boards—the ARM hardware effort of Linaro — built a development board called HuskyBoard wth AMD’s Opteron A1100 server chip, but that didn’t go well. AMD has now abandoned ARM server chips and recently released the 32-core Naples chip based on its x86 Zen architecture. The initial PC will perhaps have a server chip with decent Linux kernel support. Standard interfaces, sufficient memory, and decent graphics will matter more, as will ensuring that standard components like heatsinks and memory DIMMs can be bought off the shelf. The purpose of the gathering was to get the ball rolling for the development of a real desktop based on ARM. The PC will likely be developed by 96boards, which provides specifications to build open-source development boards. Source
  6. Intel has already started to sell low-power dual-core Core i5/i7 Kaby Lake microprocessors for notebooks, but desktop parts with four cores and high frequencies are due in early 2017, as Intel announced back at IDF and the Kaby Lake-Y/U launch. In advance of the desktop launch, as is typical with how CPUs are launched, Intel has to send out qualification and near-retail samples to partners for pre-testing of release systems. Typically this is kept under wraps, without official public announcements (it's up to you how many of the leaks you want to believe), but late last week Intel sent out a 'Product Change Notification' through its online/public channels, with details about a good portion (no way to tell if it is all the SKUs) of Intel's Core i7 and Core i5-7000 series parts. Within the PCN, Intel notified its customers about an additional assembly/packaging site for its desktop Kaby Lake-S chips in Vietnam and therefore had to disclose model numbers of the CPUs as well as some of the specifications. In addition, in a separate PCN detailing package adjustments for how chipset ICs are shipped, it would seem that Intel has also mentioned names of its upcoming 200-series chipsets. Gallery: Intel Discloses Kaby Lake-S Lineup, Base Frequencies According to Intel’s document for partners, the company intends to release at least 11 quad-core processors for desktops based on the Kaby Lake microarchitecture in Q1. What is noteworthy is that the company wants its customers to get ready to receive the first shipments of the KBL-S chips assembled in Vietnam starting from November 4, 2016, this week (which means that the final specs of the new processors have been set and will only be changed in extreme circumstances). The initial KBL-S lineup would seem to include three Core i7 SKUs, seven Core i5 CPUs as well as one Xeon E3 v6 product. (The fact that a Xeon v6 is included in this is interesting, given that Intel removed standard chipset support for Xeon E3 CPUs with Skylake and v5, meaning that both consumer and enterprise platforms are due to land in January.) All the Kaby Lake-S processors will use the B0 stepping of the core, and will have 100-300 MHz higher base frequency compared to their Skylake-S counterparts. The PCN does not explicitly state the TDP, however we do not expect much to change given the slightly improved 14+ nm technology and the increased frequencies (same thing applies to cache size, which has been consistent for several generations). We have already observed that mobile Kaby Lake CPUs have higher clock rates compared to their predecessors due to enhancements of Intel’s 14+ nm process technology, and we see that their desktop brethren also have improvements on this front. We do not have the final Turbo frequencies at hand, but we expect them to be considerably higher than the base clock rates. Basic Specifications of Quad-Core Intel Core i5/i5 and Xeon E3 Kaby Lake-S Skylake-S Model Cores /Threads Freq. (Base) TDP Product Code S-Spec Model Freq. (Base) i7-7700K 4/8 4.2 GHz 95W CM8067702868535 SR33A i7-6700K 4.0GHz i7-7700 3.6 GHz 65W CM8067702868314 SR338 i7-6700 3.4GHz i7-7700T 2.9 GHz 35W CM8067702868416 SR339 i7-6700T 2.8GHz i5-7600K 4/4 3.8 GHz 95W CM8067702868219 SR32V i5-6600K 3.5GHz i5-7600 3.5 GHz 65W CM8067702868011 SR334 i5-6600 3.3GHz i5-7600T 2.8 GHz 35W CM8067702868117 SR336 i5-6600T 2.7GHz i5-7500 3.4 GHz 65W CM8067702868012 SR335 i5-6500 3.2GHz i5-7500T 2.7 GHz 35W CM8067702868115 SR337 i5-6500T 2.5GHz i5-7400 3.0 GHz 65W CM8067702867050 SR32W i5-6400 2.7GHz i5-7400T 2.4 GHz 35W CM8067702867915 SR332 i5-6400T 2.2GHz E3-1205v6 ?/? 3.0 GHz ? CM8067702871025 SR32D - - Additional Info from Other Sources i3-7300* 2/4 4.0 GHz 65W ? SR2MC i3-6300 3.8 GHz Pentium G4620* 2/2 3.8 GHz 51W ? SR2HN Pentium G4520 3.6 GHz Pentium G3950* 2/2 3.0 GHz 51W ? SR2MU Pentium G3920 2.9 GHz *CPU details taken from this piece at PCOnline Aside from the 14+ process offering higher frequencies, the base microarchitecture of Kaby Lake-S, as explained at the release of Kaby Lake-Y/U in September, is essentially the same as Skylake. However, on top of increasing the frequencies, Intel is also adding in Speed Shift v2 which allows for much quicker adjustments in CPU frequency over Skylake (down to 10ms rather than 30ms). It remains to be seen is whether the new 14+ process technology will also enable considerably higher overclocking potential compared to existing CPUs. If it does, then the new chips have a chance to become rather popular among enthusiasts, potentially toppling the i7-2600K as a long term favorite. It might be noted is that Intel’s Kaby Lake-S will have to compete not only against their predecessors, but also against AMD’s Zen products due in Q1. That being said, some would argue that given AMD's recent presentation of certain benchmark metrics, Zen is geared more towards the high-end desktop crowd. Nevertheless, it looks like early 2017 is going to be an interesting time for microprocessors. 200-Series Chipsets In addition to model numbers of its Kaby Lake CPUs, Intel also revealed the names of its 200-series chipsets in another document it sent to partners. As expected, the lineup will include the Z270 PCH for enthusiast-class PCs with overclocking capabilities; Q270, H270 and H250 for mainstream systems and B250 for office/business computers. Intel 200-Series Chipsets Name Socket Stepping Product Code S-Spec Intel H270 LGA1151 A0 GL82H270 SR2WA Intel Z270 GL82Z270 SR2WB Intel B250 GL82B250 SR2WC Intel Q250 GL82Q250 SR2WD Intel Q270 GL82Q270 SR2WE Intel C422 LGA1151? A0 GL82C422 SR2WG Intel X299 ?!? A0 GL82X299 SR2Z2 Also in the list of chipsets were a couple of unknowns as well. Listed in the PCN is C422, which because it has a 'C' in the name means that this is typically geared towards workstations and Xeon platforms. This may be in line with the E3-1205 v6 CPU SKU as seen in the processor list. Also is X299, which really throws up a few question marks. The X-series chipsets are typically for Intel's High-End Desktop Platform (HEDT), and we've had X58, X79 and X99 in the last decade, from Nehalem up to Broadwell-E which was released back in May. This means either one of two things - either Intel is bringing the X nomenclature to Kaby Lake, the mainstream platform, or this is the next chipset for HEDT and the future Skylake-E series of processors. The first option in making X299 a Kaby Lake-related platform seems a little odd. However the second one, with Skylake-E, makes sense. After X99, the X119 name doesn't have the same marketability (if Intel was to keep parity with number jumps), but by pushing Skylake-E onto the 200-series naming as X299, it moves both mainstream and HEDT chipset naming strategies onto the same track. Note that we don't have a time-frame for Skylake-E as of yet. Intel’s motherboard customers, given the Q1 launch, must be ready to receive the 200-series PCH ICs on new reels. According to the PCN, these will come with additional protections bands starting from December 2, 2016. Intel may or may not announce the whole 200-series (not X) lineup at CES, given this late in the day adjustment to core components for the motherboards. As for improvements of the Intel 200-series chipsets, we are still waiting on official confirmation as to exactly what to expect. Various unconfirmed leaks have indicated additional PCIe 3.0 chipset lanes, some new platform features and support for Intel’s Optane SSDs, however we will be here for the official launch when the time comes. It might be worth noting that almost all the motherboard manufacturers have now formally announced new 100-series BIOS support for Kaby Lake CPUs, meaning not all enthusiasts will have to get new motherboards. Sources: Intel, PCOnline Gallery: Intel Discloses 200-Series Chipset Names Article source
  7. AMD last refreshed its Pro series of computer processors back in September 2015, with its enhanced chips based upon Carrizo and Godavari. Today AMD announced its new 7th generation Pro APUs, also known as 'Bristol Ridge Pro' processors. As with previous AMD Pro chips, the new generation brings renewed performance and feature gains alongside enterprise-class reliability and security. AMD hopes to continue the success of the Pro series as since mid-2014 it has enjoyed a 45 per cent uplift in shipments of this range. For the first time AMD will be offering both 65W and 35W APUs as part of the Pro APU range. The 35W parts will be easily recognisable with their 'E' suffix and are meant for the growingly popular ultra-small form factor PC systems. These lower power consumption processors still offer plenty of performance, according to AMD, with clear leadership especially with regards to the integrated GPU. AMD chose to make a direct comparison between its Pro A12-9800E and the competitive Intel Core i5-6500T (with Intel HD Graphics 530) in real-world shipping business systems. In PCMark 8 v2 Home the AMD system scored 3461, while the Intel system scored 2965. That's a 17 per cent improvement on AMD's side. However, I noticed that the comparison AMD system had an SSD while the Intel system used a 5,400rpm HDD. In the perhaps fairer graphics comparison between the same machines AMD's R7 Graphics trounced the Intel HD Graphics 530 in 3DMark 11 Performance tests scoring P3050 against P1622. That's 88 per cent better. Important to the appeal of AMD's 7th generation Pro APUs are the other core improvements that were present in the non-Pro 'Bristol Ridge' AM4 socket A-Series products which include; greater power efficiency, support for DDR4 memory, PCIe Gen 3, USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C, NVMe, SATA Express, and enhanced graphics. Alongside these improvements AMD delivers the 'Pro' enterprise-class features of AMD Secure processor for hardware-based security, open-standard DASH manageability, AMD-V virtualisation, plus commercial-grade quality assurance and warranties. The first products we know of packing AMD 7th generation Pro APUs are the HP Elitedesk 705 G3 range, as pictured above. AMD told us that more systems were being readied by partners for launch in the coming days/weeks. Below you can find a chart showing the SKUs announced today. Click to zoom AMD Pro APU product range chart Article source
  8. Some people crack open their computers, force their processors to run to near melting point and use liquid nitrogen to keep the whole thing in check. Here's why. What is overclocking? Not all computers are created equal. You probably know the basics of what makes your computer tick: RAM, ROM, processors and graphics cards. It's a mix of those components (among other things) that determine how fast your computer runs. You might go in for a RAM upgrade or a new hard drive every few years to keep things running smoothly. Central processing units (CPUs) have mostly hit a point where they're good enough for the average user's average tasks. But when it comes to overclocking, we're not talking about average users. We're talking about people who want to eke out every last drop of performance from their processor. CPUs come from the factory with a set clock rate -- the number of operations per second it can comfortably perform under normal conditions. It's a proven, safe operating limit. Forcing your CPU to run faster than that clock rate can cause stability issues or even total failure. Get ready to live life on the edge, because overclocking is running your computer's CPU faster than that set speed. It's possible to manually increase the clock rate set by the manufacturer in some CPUs, speeding up your computer in the process. Overclockers in action. Why isn't my computer that fast all the time? The flipside of that is that CPUs come with set clock rates for a very good reason. The factory-set speed limit is usually how fast the CPU can run with garden variety cooling and power methods. Asking your CPU to perform more operations per second than it's meant to means that it will draw more power and produce more heat -- both major concerns inside a PC tower. It's also, strictly speaking, not something you're meant to do, so overclocking usually means voiding your computer's warranty. If you don't get up adequate supply for the new power demands or install new cooling systems to deal with the extra heat, you could even permanently damage your CPU. Why do people do it? Overclocking definitely falls into the enthusiast camp. The stability issues and specialist hardware required mean that it doesn't see much professional use. For enthusiasts though, it's not about the performance boost itself. It's about chasing speeds. It's digital frontierism, testing components well outside of the recommended settings to push current tech further or jury-rig older tech to keep pace with the cutting edge. There's even a competitive benchmarking scene, with overclockers competing to hit the fastest speeds in standard computer performance tests. This is the extreme far end of the spectrum, incorporating things like liquid nitrogen cooling systems, and keeping CPUs at -100 degrees Celsius (around -140 degrees Fahrenheit). Blowtorches and liquid nitrogen. Classic computer repair tools. What do I need to overclock my computer? You'll need to make sure your hardware is capable of handling it. The most important part of overclocking is to go slow, and make sure you're feeding your computer enough power and making sure it can deal with the heat. Water cooling systems are far more efficient than the usual fan-based air cooling, and good air flow means that the heat won't be trapped inside your tower. Overclocking also means going into your computer's BIOS -- the program the processor uses to start your computer -- to manually edit the clock rate and the voltage. Every BIOS will be different, so you'll need to do a bit of research about yours. There's also a lot of testing small incremental increases to make sure everything is stable and your computer's internal temperature remains steady. There's no one switch to flip. Article source
  9. AMD Thinks Beyond Zen Chips As It Prepares For The Future A rendering of AMD's new Zen chip, which will only be supported by Microsoft's Windows 10. It looks like AMD will jump from 14-nanometer process to the 7-nanometer node to manufacture chips AMD has set high hopes for its upcoming Zen PC chips, but the company has now offered some clarity on how it will manufacture successor chips. Current Zen chips will be made using the 14-nanometer process, but the next important process for AMD is 7-nm, the company said. AMD has renewed an accord with spin-off GlobalFoundries that may include manufacturing those chips using that process. The 14-nm and 7-nm processes "are the important nodes" for AMD, said a company spokesman in an email. AMD is planning CPUs, GPUs, and custom chip manufacturing advances on those nodes. That's different from Intel, which is jumping to the 10-nm process next year before taking on 7-nm. GlobalFoundries' roadmap is unclear, though it has been internally developing 10-nm and 7-nm technologies. The 7-nm process is still considered many years out, and AMD didn't say if it was planning for chips on the 10-nm process. It's likely the immediate successor to Zen will be on the 14-nm process. Chip planning is heavily dependent on the manufacturing process. Chip makers have to plan processor features based on what a manufacturing process is able to achieve. For example, Intel planned its first 22-nm chips with 3D transistors, because the manufacturing process had the capability to etch related features on chips. AMD planned its latest GPUs, code-named Polaris, and many of its features like the HBM (high-bandwidth memory) for the 14-nm process. The 7-nm process is considered a big advance in chip making. Intel plans to introduce EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography on 7-nm, which helps etch finer features on chips. EUV alleviates some of the issues involved in etching smaller and smaller features on chips. AMD modified an ongoing chip-manufacturing contract with GlobalFoundries to account for the advance to 7-nanometer technologies. AMD's has modified the terms of the contract with GlobalFoundries through 2020, and will take a one-time charge of $335 million in the third quarter of 2016. The contract actually expires in 2024, but AMD has continuously modified the contract to align with its chip supply needs. Some poor planning has cost AMD millions of dollars in losses on this contract, but the company's chip shipment are on the upswing after years of losing market share to Intel in server and PCs. Source
  10. ARM Has A New Weapon In Race To Build World's Fastest Computers ARM's new supercomputer chip design with vector extensions will be in Japan's Post-K computer, which will be deployed in 2020 ARM conquered the mobile market starting with Apple's iPhone, and now wants to be in the world's fastest computers. A new ARM chip design being announced on Monday is targeted at supercomputers, a lucrative market in which the company has no presence. ARM's new chip design, which has mobile origins, has extensions and tweaks to boost computing power. The announcement comes a few weeks after Japanese company Softbank said it would buy ARM for a mammoth $32 billion. With the cash, ARM is expected to sharpen its focus on servers and the internet of things. ARM's new chip design will help the company on two fronts. ARM is sending a warning to Intel, IBM, and other chip makers that it too can develop fast supercomputing chips. The company will also join a race among countries and chip makers to build the world's fastest computers. The chip design is being detailed at the Hot Chips conference in Cupertino, Calif., on Monday. Countries like the U.S., Japan, and China want to be the first to reach the exascale computing threshold, in which a supercomputer delivers 1 exaflop of performance (a million trillion calculations per second). Intel, IBM, and Nvidia have also been pushing the limits of chip performance to reach that goal. Following Softbank's agreement to buy ARM, it should come as no surprise that the first supercomputer based on the new chip design will be installed in Japan. The Post-K supercomputer will be developed by Fujitsu, which dropped a bombshell in June when it dropped its trusty Sparc architecture in favor of ARM for high-performance computers. Fujitsu aided ARM in the development of the new chip. Post-K will be 50 to 100 times speedier than its predecessor, the K Computer, which is currently the fifth fastest computer in the world. The K Computer delivers 10.5 petaflops of peak performance with the Fujitsu-designed SPARC64 VIIIfx processor. The new ARM processor design will be based on the 64-bit ARM-v8A architecture and have vector processing extensions called Scalable Vector Extension. Vector processors drove early supercomputers, which then shifted over to less expensive IBM RISC chips in the early 1990s, and on to general-purpose x86 processors, which are in most high-performance servers today. In 2013, researchers said less expensive smartphone chips, like the ones from ARM, would ultimately replace x86 processors in supercomputers. But history has turned, and the growing reliance on vector processing is seeing a resurgence with ARM's new chip design and Intel's Xeon Phi supercomputing chip. The power-efficient chip design from ARM could crank up performance while reducing power consumption. Supercomputing speed is growing at a phenomenal rate, but the power consumption isn't coming down as quickly. ARM's chip design will also be part of an influx of alternative chip architectures outside x86 and IBM's Power entering supercomputing. The world's fastest supercomputer called the Sunway TaihuLight has a homegrown ShenWei processor developed by China. It offers peak performance of 125.4 petaflops. ARM has struggled in servers for half a decade now, and the new chip design could give it a better chance of competing against Intel, which dominates data centers. Large server clusters are being built for machine learning, which could use the low-precision calculations provided by a large congregation of ARM chips with vector extensions. ARM servers are already available, but aren't being widely adopted. Dell and Lenovo are testing ARM servers, and said they would ship products when demand grows, which hasn't happened yet. ARM server chip makers are also struggling and hanging on with the hope the market will take off someday. AMD, which once placed its server future on ARM chips, has reverted back to x86 chips as it re-enters servers. Qualcomm is testing its ARM server chip with cloud developers, and won't release a chip until the market is viable. AppliedMicro scored a big win with Hewlett Packard Enterprise, which is using the ARM server chips in storage systems. Other ARM server chip makers include Broadcom and Cavium. Source
  11. DKT27

    AMD Zen benchmark leaks

    So far, the only real performance numbers we’ve received for Zen have come from AMD’s marketing and presentation slides. However, this week we may have got our first look at legitimate real-world performance thanks to the Ashes of Singularity benchmark database, in which a benchmark for one of AMD’s Zen engineering samples was uncovered. This follows from last month, when the specs for several AMD Zen engineering samples made their way online. The Zen chip benchmarked here is identified as ‘1D2801A2M88E4_32/28_N’, which is a 2.8GHz base/3.2GHz turbo clocked CPU. Engineering sample clocks are usually not final, so the final product could end up having a speed bump. It also isn’t entirely clear if this is the eight core chip or the quad core. Click on images for larger view. The screenshot above shows that the Ashes of Singularity benchmark was running at the standard graphical preset at 1080p, with an RX 480. Here, the Zen engineering sample scored 58 frames per second on average, as shown by the CPU Framerate bar on the graph. As wccftech points out, this is higher than an Intel core i5 4670k, which scores 52.6 frames per second. It is also a significant leap over the FX-8350, which scored 42 frames per second. It does lag behind the Intel Core i7 4790 though, which manages 65.4 frames per second in this benchmark. However, that could change between now and release. So this appears to be our first real-world taste of what Zen is capable of. However, it might be a while before we can get our hands on the CPU as a recent AMD roadmap leak points to Zen arriving in 2017. View: Original Article
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