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  1. How To Speed Up The Vivaldi Web Browser The following guide lists tweaks and suggestions on how to speed up the Vivaldi web browser to reduce lag and improve the browser's performance. Vivaldi is based on Chromium, and performance should not really be much of an issue because of this. However, the browser may feel sluggish or laggy at times, with actions like opening a new tab or switching to another tab being noticeably delayed. I noticed the tab delay issue recently on a modern system running Windows 10, and decided to look into it to find a solution. I did find the culprit after a while. If you open vivaldi://settings/all/ in a tab, all activities in the browser are delayed as long as the settings page remains open. So, make sure you close the settings when you are done modifying them. Speed up the Vivaldi web browser First thing I did was go through all browser settings to optimize the preferences for performance. Please note that some changes may reduce the functionality of the browser. If you cannot live without it, e.g. mouse gestures, then don't disable the option. vivaldi://settings/tabs/ -- I set the New Tab Page to "specific page" but without setting one. vivaldi://settings/tabs/ -- Disable "show popup thumbnails", "show tab thumbnails", "detect page title notifications", and "use unread indicators". This removes some eye candy from Vivaldi, and the highlighting of unread messages on select social media sites. vivaldi://settings/startup/ -- Make sure "lazy load restored tabs" is enabled if the browser is set to load the last session on start. vivaldi://settings/appearance/ -- Disable "use animation" and "use buttons in range controls". Try "use native window" to see if it makes a difference. vivaldi://settings/themes/ -- Edit the current theme, and make sure "accent color from active page" is disabled. vivaldi://settings/start-page/ -- Disable "show background image". vivaldi://settings/addressbar/ -- Disable "fast forward and rewind" vivaldi://settings/mouse/ -- Disable "allow gestures" and "allow rocker gestures". These settings may reduce some of the performance issues that you may experience when running the Vivaldi browser. The Task Manager Tip: I suggest you make use of the built-in Task Manager to monitor memory and CPU utilization of the browser, gpu, tabs and extensions. Extensions may slow down the browser, and you may want to disable some or even all to find out whether doing so improves the performance of the web browser. Vivaldi start up parameters Vivaldi supports pretty much the same startup parameters as Chromium and Google Chrome. While there may be some differences, you may use the following parameters to improve the browser's performance or resource usage further: --process-per-site This switches the multi-process model from using one process per page, to one process per site. Useful if you open multiple pages of the same site regularly at the same time, as you will save quite a bit of memory then. --disk-cache-dir=z:\vivaldi\ --disk-cache-size=104857600 This moves the disk cache that Vivaldi uses to drive z:\, and sets the maximum cache size to 100 Megabytes (the value is in bytes). If you have enough RAM, z: could be a ram disk to further improve the process. --enable-low-end-device-mode This enables low end device mode which improves memory consumption of the browser. --enable-low-res-tiling This enables low res tiling which helps on slower devices when scrolling pages. How to add the parameters On Windows, you right-click on the Vivaldi icon (for instance on the taskbar), and right-click on Vivaldi in the menu that opens. Select Properties in the menu that opens then, and add the parameters to the target field of the properties window. Make sure that there is a "blank" between the path and filename, and the first parameter, e.g. C:\Users\Martin\AppData\Local\Vivaldi\Application\vivaldi.exe --disk-cache-dir=Z:\Vivaldi\ --disk-cache-size=1073741824 Now You: Have another tip for improving Vivaldi's performance? Source
  2. How To Stream Movies And TV Shows On Android For Free Want to stream movies and TV shows for free on Android, know how Did you know that there is a huge number of apps on Android that allow you to stream movies and TV shows for free? So, if you are thinking of tossing your cable box or ditching your satellite dish, you can go ahead and to do so by watching your favourite movies and TV shows for free on the Android apps mentioned below. Let’s go through some of the best Android app to stream movies and TV shows for free. SPB TV The Android SPB TV app is not region-specific and provides content from around the world via a selection of bizarre and wonderful stations. This app offers you a pretty good mix of content ranging from the NASA channel to Comedy for Women. While you won’t find the latest Hollywood blockbuster, NBC or Showtime on SPB TV, but if you want to take a chance on a wild card, then this is the app to use. A few of the stations definitely appear to be of a more adult nature (how you select to use that information is up to you). Hulu Hulu allows users to watch premium TV shows and movies on their smartphones or tablets without paying a subscription fee. It is a perfect family tablet companion, as it filled with current and classic shows, Hulu originals, movies and plenty of kids’ shows. If you want full access to the Hulu library, you will need to pay $7.99 a month with limited commercials and $11.99 without commercials. However, there are lots of gems in the free version too. If you are willing to be a little patient, then you can also find some great shows for free. Crackle Created by Grouper but later bought by Sony, Crackle is a hugely popular free app, which is updated monthly with new TV shows and movies. The app features ads which run at regular intervals throughout the content, in exchange for which you get an exceptional collection of media and an app that functions much better than some of the other TV service ports on the list. Like Netflix or Amazon, Crackle has selected some original content that’s getting more widely known. The most famous of these is ‘Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee’ starring Jerry Seinfeld. It’s on its eighth season and has featured some major guests like Will Ferrell, Ricky Gervais and Barack Obama. FilmOn FilmOn streams a huge range of channels from around the world live, as well as an assortment of classic/B-movies; mostly a peculiar but enjoyable mix of horror and Kung Fu movies. However, the most impressive are the sports channels. On this app, you can check out some very interesting live events. FilmOn is a free service supported by ads and doesn’t have the same clout as Netflix or even Hulu, but the live TV streams work well. It is a wonderful option for streaming a number of well-known channels. Ensure that you browse for a while and see what’s available. You never know you may be surprised at what you can find. #Toonmania For your anime needs, it’s hard to beat Toonmania, which provides a huge selection of the dubbed cartoons. Thanks to the app’s clean and intuitive layout, everything is easily navigable, and you can look through shows that are classified by popularity or most recently added. You can also narrow down your search to find exactly what you’re looking for, as there is a comprehensive list of filters available. This app isn’t available from the Play Store, but if you go to mobi24, you can download the APK file. Ensure that you go to Settings > Lock screen and security and enable Unknown sources before trying to install the file. Once done, you will have access to everything in the library. Crunchyroll Crunchyroll is another excellent Anime streaming app that is available through Google Play. It has a huge collection of the best Anime available for free. With over five million downloads and a decent rating, this app is quite popular. It is very easy to run the app. Just browse through your favourite shows and they will run with subtitles. The default language is English. You may have to watch some advertisements but mostly for the premium service it provides. Essentially, as you are paying $4.99, you won’t have to watch Crunchyroll advertisements. Source
  3. How To Become An Ethical Hacker Step by step guide to becoming an ethical hacker Hacking is one of the most misconstrued words in computer dictionary with some having glamorous connotation about it while others who view hackers with contempt. Hacking was mainly used in the “good old days” for getting information about systems and IT in general. However, it is now associated with the unauthorized use of computer and network resources. By definition, hacking is the practice of altering the features of a system, to accomplish a goal which is not in scope of the purpose of its creation. However, hacking has more to it than just altering a code, as it is a high paying career choice with huge reputation for successful hackers. In the last few decades, there’s been an increasing demand for ethical hackers (also known as white hat hackers or penetration testers) as they protect the computer systems from dangerous intrusions. Businesses and government-related organizations that are serious about their network security hire ethical hackers and penetration testers to help probe and improve their networks, applications, and other computer systems with the ultimate goal of preventing data theft and fraud. Ethical hackers use the same methods as their less-reputable namesakes, but document vulnerabilities instead of exploiting them, preventing potential crises and minimizing damage. What is Ethical Hacking? The term ‘hacking’ has very negative connotations, but that’s only until the role of an ethical hacker is fully understood. Ethical hackers are the good guys of the hacking world, the ones who wear the “white hat.” So what does the role of an ethical hacker involve? Instead of using their advanced computer knowledge for nefarious activities, Ethical hackers or white hat hackers identify weaknesses in data computer security for business and organizations across the globe, to protect them from hackers or criminals with less honest motives. This not only helps them earn a good and honest living but also keeps them away from facing prison time. To be a professional ethical hacker, you require motivation, dedication, initiative, self-education and formal training in ethical hacking. Getting Started Many ethical hackers start out by obtaining a computer science degree. Start with the basics: Earn your A+ Certification and get a tech support position. After some experience and additional certification (Network+ or CCNA), move up to a network support or admin role, and then to network engineer after a few years. The Network+ certification validates foundation-level knowledge in networks, including management, maintenance, installation, and troubleshooting. The CCNA qualification ensures the same abilities and aims at foundation-level expertise. Next, invest some time into earning security certifications (Security+, CISSP, or TICSA) and find an information security position. While you are there, try to concentrate on penetration testing and get some experience with the tools of the trade. Then work toward the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) certification offered by the International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants (EC-Council for short). At that point, you can start marketing yourself as an ethical hacker. For a hacker, networking know-how is important. Ensure that you gain experience in related areas as well. Discover and play with Unix/Linux commands and distributions. Make sure you also learn some programming such as C, LISP, Perl, or Java. Also, spend some time with databases such as SQL. In addition, also learn about Windows and Mac OS. Soft Skills Hacking isn’t all technical. Just like any other IT job does, it also requires so-called soft skills. You will need a strong work ethic, very good problem-solving and communications skills, and the ability to say motivated and dedicated. Ethical hackers also need street smart, people skills, and even some talent for manipulation, as there may be times when they are not able to convince others to disclose credentials, restart or shut down systems, execute files, or otherwise knowingly or unknowingly help them achieve their ultimate goal. You will need to master this aspect of the job, which people in the business sometimes call “social engineering,” to become a well-rounded ethical hacker. Be a part of a project or sign up for a course Most youngsters want to take up hacking but don’t know where to start. Many of them think hacking happens at a click of fingers but it is not so. You have to put in lot of hours to get your hacking targets right. Websites such as Coursera and Udemy are a good place to learn these basic skills; you can also sign up for a course for the same. Depending on how to learn best, taking a step-by-step course with tutorials could be the way forward, or otherwise, find a project. Hacking, patches, improvement, and mods are all inter-weaved through understanding a programming language or an operating system. So, take up something that interests you whether it is streamlining and creating a program, or creating a gaming mod, or fixing a security issue, or joining community competitions offered by groups such as Hackthissite.org. Specialize Hacking is about choosing the right path and you need to specialize. You can’t go about hunting for desktop vulnerabilities one day and switch on to finding Android vulnerabilities on the next. If you really want to become a specialist, then do not limit yourself to just learning a programming language. There are a huge range of topics and subjects that you should research and learn about, including learning about the essential fundamentals. Learning about hacking history, the Metasploit framework, online security and privacy, social engineering, Shell, and databases are only some of the areas you should explore. Be a part of the bug lovers’ community Sharing helps and in hacking, sharing is often the key to success. The open-source community always welcomes people who have a good knowledge of computers, operating systems and programming and love to solve problems and think creatively. A great place to start is GitHub, which is not a wonderful way to meet other hackers, developers and both professionals and enthusiasts but also is a good way to polish your skills and have a hand in enhancing coding and streamlining. Stay legal Last, but not the least, it is important not to get involved in “black hat” hacking, which means intruding or attacking anyone’s network without their full written permission. Engaging in illegal activities, even if it doesn’t lead to a conviction, will likely kill your ethical hacking career. Many of the available jobs are with government-related organizations and require security clearances and polygraph testing. Even regular companies perform a basic background check to hire employees. So, ensure that you stay away from black hat hacking. Always, remember hacking pays well as long as you are on the right side of the law at all times. Source
  4. Basic Linux Networking Commands You Should Know Brief: A collection of most important and yet basic Linux networking commands an aspiring Linux SysAdmin and Linux enthusiasts must know. It’s not every day at It’s FOSS that we talk about the “command line side” of Linux. Basically, I focus more on the desktop side of Linux. But as some of you readers pointed out in the internal survey (exclusive for It’s FOSS newsletter subscribers), that you would like to learn some command line tricks as well. Cheat sheets were also liked and encouraged by most readers. For this purpose, I have compiled a list of the basic networking commands in Linux. It’s not a tutorial that teaches you how to use these commands, rather, it’s a collection of commands and their short explanation. So if you already have some experience with these commands, you can use it for quickly remembering the commands. You can bookmark this page for quick reference or even download all the commands in PDF for offline access. I had this list of Linux networking commands when I was a student of Communication System Engineering. It helped me to get the top score in Computer Networks course. I hope it helps you in the same way. Exclusive bonus: Download Linux Networking Commands Cheat Sheet for future reference. LIST OF BASIC NETWORKING COMMANDS IN LINUX I used FreeBSD in the computer networking course but the UNIX commands should work the same in Linux also. CONNECTIVITY: ping <host> —- sends an ICMP echo message (one packet) to a host. This may go continually until you hit Control-C. Ping means a packet was sent from your machine via ICMP, and echoed at the IP level. ping tells you if the other Host is Up. telnet host <port> —- talk to “hosts” at the given port number. By default, the telnet port is port 23. Few other famous ports are: 7 – echo port, 25 – SMTP, use to send mail 79 – Finger, provides information on other users of the network Use control-] to get out of telnet. ARP: Arp is used to translate IP addresses into Ethernet addresses. Root can add and delete arp entries. Deleting them can be useful if an arp entry is malformed or just wrong. Arp entries explicitly added by root are permanent — they can also be by proxy. The arp table is stored in the kernel and manipulated dynamically. Arp entries are cached and will time out and are deleted normally in 20 minutes. arp –a : Prints the arp table arp –s <ip_address> <mac_address> [pub] to add an entry in the table arp –a –d to delete all the entries in the ARP table ROUTING: netstat –r —- Print routing tables. The routing tables are stored in the kernel and used by ip to route packets to non-local networks. route add —- The route command is used for setting a static (non-dynamic by hand route) route path in the route tables. All the traffic from this PC to that IP/SubNet will go through the given Gateway IP. It can also be used for setting a default route; i.e., send all packets to a particular gateway, by using in the pace of IP/SubNet. routed —– The BSD daemon that does dynamic routing. Started at boot. This runs the RIP routing protocol. ROOT ONLY. You won’t be able to run this without root access. gated —– Gated is an alternative routing daemon to RIP. It uses the OSPF, EGP, and RIP protocols in one place. ROOT ONLY. traceroute —- Useful for tracing the route of IP packets. The packet causes messages to be sent back from all gateways in between the source and destination by increasing the number of hopes by 1 each time. netstat –rnf inet : it displays the routing tables of IPv4 sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1 : to enable packets forwarding (to turn a host into a router) route add|delete [-net|-host] <destination> <gateway> (ex. route add to add a route route flush : it removes all the routes route add -net : to add a default route routed -Pripv2 –Pno_rdisc –d [-s|-q] to execute routed daemon with RIPv2 protocol, without ICMP auto-discovery, in foreground, in supply or in quiet mode route add : it defines the route used from RIPv2 rtquery –n : to query the RIP daemon on a specific host (manually update the routing table) OTHERS: nslookup —- Makes queries to the DNS server to translate IP to a name, or vice versa. eg. nslookup facebook.com will gives you the IP of facebook.com ftp <host>water —– Transfer files to host. Often can use login=“anonymous” , p/w=“guest” rlogin -l —– Logs into the host with a virtual terminal like telnet IMPORTANT FILES: /etc/hosts —- names to ip addresses /etc/networks —- network names to ip addresses /etc/protocols —– protocol names to protocol numbers /etc/services —- tcp/udp service names to port numbers TOOLS AND NETWORK PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ifconfig <interface> <address> [up] : start the interface ifconfig <interface> [down|delete] : stop the interface ethereal & : it allows you open ethereal background not foreground tcpdump –i -vvv : tool to capture and analyze packets netstat –w [seconds] –I [interface] : display network settings and statistics udpmt –p [port] –s [bytes] target_host : it creates UDP traffic udptarget –p [port] : it’s able to receive UDP traffic tcpmt –p [port] –s [bytes] target_host : it creates TCP traffic tcptarget –p [port] it’s able to receive TCP traffic ifconfig netmask [up] : it allows to subnet the sub-networks SWITCHING: ifconfig sl0 srcIP dstIP : configure a serial interface (do “slattach –l /dev/ttyd0” before, and “sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1“ after) telnet : to access the switch from a host in its subnetwork sh ru or show running-configuration : to see the current configurations configure terminal : to enter in configuration mode exit : in order to go to the lower configuration mode VLAN: vlan n : it creates a VLAN with ID n no vlan N : it deletes the VLAN with ID N untagged Y : it adds the port Y to the VLAN N ifconfig vlan0 create : it creates vlan0 interface ifconfig vlan0 vlan ID vlandev em0 : it associates vlan0 interface on top of em0, and set the tags to ID ifconfig vlan0 [up] : to turn on the virtual interface tagged Y : it adds to the port Y the support of tagged frames for the current VLAN UDP/TCP socklab udp – it executes socklab with udp protocol sock – it creates a udp socket, it’s equivalent to type sock udp and bind sendto <Socket ID> <hostname> <port #> – emission of data packets recvfrom <Socket ID> <byte #> – it receives data from socket socklab tcp – it executes socklab with tcp protocol passive – it creates a socket in passive mode, it’s equivalent to socklab, sock tcp, bind, listen accept – it accepts an incoming connection (it can be done before or after creating the incoming connection) connect <hostname> <port #> – these two commands are equivalent to socklab, sock tcp, bind, connect close – it closes the connection read <byte #> – to read bytes on the socket write (ex. write ciao, ex. write #10) to write “ciao” or to write 10 bytes on the socket NAT/FIREWALL rm /etc/resolv.conf – it prevent address resolution and make sure your filtering and firewall rules works properly ipnat –f file_name – it writes filtering rules into file_name ipnat –l – it gives the list of active rules ipnat –C –F – it re-initialize the rules table map em0 -> em0 : mapping IP addresses to the interface map em0 -> portmap tcp/udp 20000:50000 : mapping with port ipf –f file_name : it writes filtering rules into file_name ipf –F –a : it resets the rule table ipfstat –I : it grants access to a few information on filtered packets, as well as active filtering rules Source
  5. 5 Terminal Commands You Think Every Linux User Should Know Way back in February ago we asked you to list the top Terminal commands you thought every Linux user should know. You, awesome folks that you are, replied in your droves. More than one thousand of you sent in a list of command line should-knows. I had initially planned to write this follow-up article a week after asking for suggestions. Evidently I didn’t. Too Many Replies, Too Few Joeys When I launched the poll I was expecting to receive a modest batch of entries. The preceding fortnight’s poll on Cinnamon themes had netted only a couple of hundred replies. Because of the huge response it has taken me a veritable age to sift through, collate, cut-down and create some semblance of a follow-up post. I fully admit that this article is not as good (nor as thorough) as it could (or should) be. But if I don’t publish it now I’m never going to get around to it. Your Responses Were Varied The Terminal is often seen as boring. Foolishly I didn’t give too much thought to things I should’ve, for example, specifying what counts as ‘a command’ — did I mean command of a single word (I did), or a complete command linked by &&’s and a stream of arguments (I didn’t). That lackadaisical lapse on my part meant there was confusion over what exactly I had asked. This made task made much harder by just how diverse some of your replies are! A few lists resembled an instruction manual to the Mars Curiosity rover! Interestingly though, the overall response varies little from the terminal suggestions readers gave five years ago, save for one command (uname). ls was one of the most suggested command, but if I divide replies listing it into those which use ‘ls‘ alone and those which pass an argument to it e.g., ‘ls -n’ etc, then falls further down the list than something like ‘top’ or ‘grep’. For this list I’m going to focus on the core commands you suggested. I will touch on some of the available arguments that are commonly used in conjunction with them in the brief blurb accompanying them, but it is the Please note that what follows below is a brief overview of the command and not a comprehensive instruction manual. #1: apt-get Useful for: Managing packages Apt — Advanced Packaging Tool — is the single most important command on this list because it’s the one you use to manage packages installed. It doesn’t matter if your run a GUI or not: if you use Ubuntu, you use apt. Apt-get has been replaced by the simpler ‘apt’ in Ubuntu 16.04 (though both work). At the time of our poll this wasn’t promoted, or indeed enabled in 15.1. Forgive its omission here. Some example apt commands: sudo apt install application-name sudo apt-get remove application-name sudo apt-get autoclean See the apt man page for further information on its usage. #2: ls Useful For: Finding out which files are where When you want to find a file, or get a quick overview of what files exist in the current directory, you can use the ls command (ls is short for ‘list’). Using ls on its own, with no flag, will list the names of files and folders within the current directory. This omits information like name file, format, size, date modified, etc. To see directory contents with some of its data in a human readable format use the ‘-lh’ flag, like so: ls -lh You can sort files based on size (largest file size to smallest) by passing the ‘-lS’ flag (that’s a lowercase l and a capital S): ls -lS See the ls man page for more things you can do with this command. #3: cd Useful For: Moving around your filesystem The cd command, also known as chdir (change directory), is a command-line command used to change and navigate through directories. Cd will assume you’re in your Home folder (unless otherwise listed). Its use is straightforward. To ‘change directory’ from Home to the Pictures folder you wold run: cd /Pictures Then you could run a subsequent command in this folder, e.g, ‘mkdir’ to create folder, ‘ls’ to list files, and so on. Now let’s go into another folder within Pictures: cd cats/ To move back one directory add a hyphen suffix, like so: cd - To go back to your root/home directory simply run: cd See the manpage for this command to learn more about its uses. #4: sudo Useful For: Doing ninja stuff Sudo… Super Do… Super User… Whatever you call it, you can’t do anything too dramatic to your system without it. That makes it possibly the single most important command on this list. sudo lets you run commands, install software, edit protected files, as the superuser. It requires authentication using your user or root user password. Example commands: sudo edit /usr/share/applications/application.desktop sudo apt-get install application-name The related command sudo !! was also suggested a number of times. This is one of my own personal favourites as it lets you (quickly) run the previous command entered as root when if you forget to add it in. apt install corebird sudo !! See the man page for sudo to learn more. #5: cat Useful For: Seeing what a file contains cat stands for “catenate” (no, I’ve no idea what this word means, either). The cat command read data from files and outputs its content in the terminal. Using cat is the simplest way to display file contents at the command line. Examples cat examplefile.txt To see the same file but with number lines on display pass the -n argument: cat -n examplefile.txt See the cat manpage for more details overview of this command. A Polite Reminder: This Is YOUR List, Not Mine I can already hear some of you itching to go off the rails in the comment section over the commands listed above. But before you do roll off the rails please remember that this list is made up of the top terminal commands suggested by you, the reader. Source
  6. Fix gvfsd-smb-browse Taking 100% CPU In Ubuntu 16.04 Brief: This quick tutorial shows the workaround for gvfsd-smb-browser taking 100% CPU in Ubuntu 16.04 and thus causing overheating. A couple of months after installing Ubuntu 16.04, I noticed that suddenly my laptop was getting extremely overheated. I can hear it roaring despite that I have a high end, ultrabook. As I had mentioned in the best practices to prevent overheating in Linux laptops, if your system is getting overheated suddenly, always check the processes running. You can do that by just running command top in a terminal. When I used top in the terminal to see what’s going on with my Ubuntu 16.04 system, I noticed a strange process ‘gvfsd-smb-+’ consuming almost all of the CPU. This was the reason why my laptop was going nuts and overheating. The process is actually gvfsd-smb-browse, the extra + because the complete name did not fit in the terminal. Finding and killing processes in Linux is a piece of cake, so I killed the nasty process and everything was fine afterward. Or so I had thought. But this nasty thing continued every time I logged into Ubuntu 16.04. If I tried to open an image, or played a file and sometimes just using Nautilus file manager would start gvfsd-smb-+ eating up all the CPU. If your Ubuntu 16.04 is getting overheated as well, check if it is gvfsd-smb-browse that is causing the problem. If yes, let me show you a workaround to get rid of this issue. Fix gvfsd-smb-browse taking 100% CPU in Ubuntu 16.04 This gvfsd-smb-+ is actually Samba, the tool that is used to share files on local network in Linux. I found that there is already a bug opened for this issue. While we wait for this bug to be fixed, let’s see a workaround to get rid of this issue. What we are going to do here is to revoke permission on this process. With that, the process won’t run on its own as it would require sudo access. Open a terminal and use the following command: sudo chmod 744 /usr/lib/gvfs/gvfsd-smb-browse Now when you restart your system and go into Nautilus and open files, gvfsd-smb-browse won’t be starting on its own anymore. That fixes our problem, isn’t it? You could delete Samba altogether but I won’t advise that at all. I hope this little trick help you get rid of high CPU consumption by gvfsd-smb-browse and gives you a cooler Linux experience. Source
  7. Five Linux Networking Commands To Help With Network Connectivity Issues These five helpful networking commands to monitor connectivity issues on Linux PCs Linux is everywhere and nearly all Linux distros need network connections to offer their services. Network connection failures is one of the major headaches if you are using a Linux based PC or a system. Because if your network fails, all other services will fail and you will be left with a dud system. For this reason, the administrator must have the appropriate tools and commands to analyze and troubleshoot network connectivity. Here are five most helpful Linux networking commands to ensure continuity. ip ip is known as the Swiss Army knife of Linux networking commands because of its ability to work with subcommands. It is designed to work with ip link, to manage and monitor the network link, ip addr to manage IP addresses and ip route to manage the routing table. As a Linux professional you can use ip link show, ip addr show or ip route show to see the current link state, and address configuration, such as router configuration. To go beyond that, use ip addr add dev eth0 to temporarily assign an IP address to the eth0 network interface. For more advanced users, ip has advanced options setting as well. You can use ip link set promisc on temporarily sets a network interface to promiscuous mode, allowing it to capture all packets sent on the network — not just packets addressed to its own media access control address. The ipcommand and its subcommands work well for troubleshooting connection issues, but everything done with this command will disappear after rebooting your machine. tcpdump Tcpdump is another very popular Linux networking command to analyze network activity. This packet sniffing command captures traffic that goes through a specific network interface. If you run it without any arguments, such as in tcpdump -i eth0, the command will reveal large amounts of packets passing by. Another common option is to use -w, as in tcpdump -i eth0 -w packets.pcap, which writes the result to a file that admins can analyze later using the Wireshark utility. Wireshark Most of Linux users know Wireshark utility, which is also popular with hackers and security researchers. Wireshark is a graphical tool allows you to analyze and sniff network packets. While tcpdump dumps network traffic on the stdout, admins can use Wireshark to click through network communication streams within a convenient graphical interface. This versatile tool can perform a live packet capture, but also can read in a capture file that was created with another tool, such as tcpdump. ethtool ethtool is for advanced Linux users. If you’re working with traditional physical network cards instead of interfaces in a virtual machine, you’ll like ethtool. This tool allows Linux users to monitor and set different properties of the network card. For example, use ethtool -i eth0 to find hardware-related information about your eth0 interface, orethtool -S eth0 to get usage statistics on packets received and sent through that interface. The command ethtool -p eth0 will cause the LED on the back of the network card to blink, which is a useful notification to swap cables on eth3, for example. But before doing so, verify that you’re working on eth3 instead of another network interface. Remember, ethtool is dependent on drivers which you use so you may not always receive useful information. ncat In olden days, Linux users used Telnet to make connection to a specific port in various distros. Ncat or netcat is a replacement for this old telnet utility. Admins, for example, can use ncat somehost 80 to establish a connection on port 80 to a host named somehost, but ncat has more advanced capabilities, as well, such as establishing a connection between two hosts. Use ncat -l 4444 to have ncat listen on one host, and use ncat hostname 4444 to make a connection to that port from another host. By itself, that isn’t very useful, but using that connection in a pipe creates more options. For example, use ncat -l 4444 > somefile on one host andecho hello | ncat hostname 4444 on the other host, which will send the output of the command over the network to write it in a file on the other host. If you use anyone of the the above utilities, you can troubleshoot your networking problems with ease. If you use a different utility to monitor your network traffic, kindly mention the same in comments for other readers. Source
  8. Change Hostname in Ubuntu 16.04 Without Restart Quick tutorial for those who want to change the Hostname (Computer name) in Ubuntu 16.04 Server or Desktop without a restart. To change hostname temporarily so it works until you reboot the machine: In terminal / command console, run the command: sudo hostname NEW_NAME_HERE To permanently change your computer name, you may edit the “/etc/hostname” and “/etc/hosts” files. Open terminal and run command: gksudo gedit /etc/hostname /etc/hosts You may need to install gksu first via command "sudo apt install gksu". For Ubuntu Server, use two "nano" commands instead (Press Ctrl+X, followed by Y, and then Enter to save changes): sudo nano /etc/hostname sudo nano /etc/hosts When the files open, set the new hostname: /etc/hostname is a simple one line file, change the name to whatever your want. /etc/hosts maps IP addresses to host names, change the name in second line and make it SAME to the name in /etc/hostname. Without restarting your machine, just run the command below to restart hostname service to apply changes: systemctl restart systemd-logind.service There’s also hostnamectl command with set-hostname flag, which will alter the pretty, the static, and the transient hostname alike: hostnamectl set-hostname NEW_NAME_HERE ISSUE: After changing hostname, gedit and other graphical apps use X11/Mir protocol won’t launch from terminal via "gksudo", you’ll get something like below: To fix it: run "xauth list" command to check authentication cookie. add a matching cookie for the new hostname: xauth add "NEW_HOSTNAME/unix:0" MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 cookie-id-here Source
  9. How To Handle Lots of Browser Tabs Find out how to handle lots of open browser tabs in your web browser of choice to improve the manageability of tabs and your browsing experience. Browser tabs are a useful feature supported by all modern desktop browsers. They enable you to open multiple web pages and applications at the same time in a single browser window. Most browsers seem to be optimized for low to medium numbers of tabs, and companies are using different means when certain thresholds are crossed to deal with tab overload. Mozilla Firefox and Firefox-based browsers add scroll icons to the tab bar for instance, while Google Chrome squeezes icons more and more until they don't even reveal the site's favicon let alone any title anymore. Some browsers are better suited for holding a large number of open tabs at the same time as others. While appearance is one part of the issue, memory use is another that needs to be taken into consideration. Generally speaking, Google Chrome is doing not as good as Firefox when it comes to an open tab count that crosses the 50, 100 or even 200 mark. This may change with the launch of multi-process technology in Firefox, and we will take a look at memory use when Mozilla releases the first stable version of it later this year. Tab Overload Tips For general tips regarding tabs, check out our Firefox Tab Mastery guide. Finding Tabs quickly (Firefox) Keeping an overview of all open tabs, and finding open pages quickly, can be quite the issue if you have too many tabs open. Firefox displays scroll icons while Chrome hides tab titles and favicons. Both browsers make it difficult to find tabs when a certain threshold is reached. One of the easier options to jump to open tabs is to type part of its title or domain in the address bar if you are using Firefox. The browser suggests to switch to open tabs that match what you have entered so that you can jump top the tab easily. Keyboard shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts for navigating tabs are identical in all modern browsers. The most important ones are: Ctrl-1 to Ctrl-8: jump to one of the first eight tabs open in the browser. Ctrl-9: jump to the last tab. Ctrl-Tab: switch to the tab on the right on the tab bar. Ctrl-Shift-Tab: switch to the tab on the left on the tab bar. Ctrl-Shift-Page Up: move active tab to the left. Ctrl-Shift-Page Down: move active tab to the right. Ctrl-Home: move active tab to the start. Ctrl-End: move active tab to the end. Ctrl-M: toggle audio in active tab. You can select multiple tabs at once by holding down the Ctrl-key before left-clicking on tabs you want to select. Alternatively, if the tabs are in sequence, holding Shift will do as well. Remember tabs between sessions If you want the browser to load all tabs that you had open the last time you used it, you need to configure it to do so. Chrome users load chrome://settings/ in the browser and switch the "on startup" preference to "Continue where you left off". Firefox users load about:preferences#general instead, and select "show my windows and tabs from last time" under "when Firefox starts". Please note that this will only work if you have not configured the browser to clear the browsing & download history on exit. Bookmark all Tabs The option to bookmark all tabs is part of every modern desktop browser. Simply right-click on the tab bar and select the "bookmark all" option that is provided in the menu that opens. Bookmarking all tabs can be useful for safe keeping, for instance if you have not configured the browser to open the previous session on start. Additionally, you may use it to quickly re-load the set of bookmarks at a later point in time, and even maintain several different sets of bookmarks for different purposes. Tab groups do work better usually for that purpose though. Pinning Tabs Pinned tabs serve two main purposes. First, they are always displayed at the leftmost side of the tab bar which means that you will always know that they are there. Additionally, you can use the Ctrl-1 to Ctrl-8 shortcut to quickly switch to them whenever the need arises. Second, pinned tabs will be loaded when the browser starts even if you have not set it to remember the tabs and windows from the last browsing session. To pin a tab, right-click on it and select the option from the context menu. Tab Stacking (Vivaldi) Vivaldi supports a tab stacking feature that merges multiple tabs so that they are displayed as a single tab in the browser. Simply drag and drop tabs on top of each other to make use of the feature. You can iterate through the list by left-clicking on the tab, or right-click to display additional options. Using multiple windows You may want to consider using multiple browser windows it if becomes difficult to work with the browser due to the number of open tabs. This may remove the scroll icons from Firefox, and make tab titles or at least favicons visible again in the Google Chrome browser. Loading / Running many tabs You may notice slow down on browser start if the last session is restored on start. Chrome especially has issues with this while browsers such as Firefox are configured to load tabs selectively only. Add-ons like Tab Suspender or The Great Suspender for Google Chrome, or Suspend Tab for Firefox, may unload tabs manually or automatically to save memory. Browser Extensions One of the best methods of dealing with lots of open browser tabs is to install add-ons that help you manage those tabs. Chrome users can check out Tabli, a browser extension listing all tabs and browser windows when it is activated. Firefox users have better options when it comes to that. First, they may display tabs horizontally instead of vertically using Tree Style Tab. Alternatively, they may install Tab Mix Plus to display multiple tab bars in the browser. Then there is Tab Groups, an add-on that restores the tab grouping and management feature of Firefox. Now You: Did we miss something? Feel free to let us know in the comments below. Source
  10. Action Center improvements highlighted in new post The new Action Center in Windows 10 Anniversary Update The Anniversary Update for Windows 10 will bring a plethora of improvements to PCs and mobile devices and Microsoft wants to make sure that you don’t miss any of them, so the company started posting how-to tips ahead of the public launch so that everyone can now what to expect. Although all these improvements have been in the press for quite some time, Microsoft is using official blog posts to highlight certain features coming in the Anniversary Update and the first to get its love is the Action Center. Indeed, the Action Center will be significantly improved with the upcoming update, getting better integration in the operating system and offering much more information beside the typical notification. Microsoft says that Cortana users should sign in with their Microsoft accounts to make the most of the Action Center and get notifications for a wide variety of tasks, including reminders and updates on favorite news topics. Phone notifications on the PC via the Action Center Furthermore, the Action Center can now show notifications from the majority of apps in the store, as they have already added support for this feature, while Microsoft Edge browser itself can display web notifications from a series of websites. And last but not least, Microsoft reminds users that with the Anniversary Update, it’ll be finally possible to have phone notifications on the PC, all with the help of Cortana. This feature works on both Android and Windows 10 Mobile devices and users need to be signed in with the same Microsoft account everywhere where Cortana is running. Of course, there’s more to come in the Action Center with the Anniversary Update, including configuration settings to prioritize notifications, silent notifications, or choose the maximum number of items that will be displayed. More information, however, is very likely to be included in the Get Started app that Microsoft is offering with Windows 10 and which will most likely be updated as well when the Anniversary Update goes live for all users in July. Article source
  11. How To Hack WhatsApp Using SS7 Flaw Researchers are easily able to hack WhatsApp and Telegram using the known telecom flaw We continuously receive queries from readers about how to hack WhatsApp. The world’s most popular cross platform messaging App is seen to be ultimate hack by many because it has recently enabled 256-bit encryption. For ordinary souls this encryption would take days and months to decode a sentence or a complete message. Ditto with another secure messaging service called Telegram. Though Telegram is not as popular as WhatsApp, it has its ardent group of followers who use it for its encryption as well as snooping free service. Though both of these Apps are end-to-end encrypted both of them suffer from hardware side vulnerability which can be exploited to hack and hijack both WhatsApp and Telegram. The vulnerability lies in Signalling System 7, or SS7, the technology used by telecom operators, on which the highly secure messaging system and telephone calls rely. SS7 is a set of telephony signalling protocols developed in 1975, which is used to set up and tear down most of the world’s public switched telephone network (PSTN) telephone calls. It also performs number translation, local number portability, prepaid billing, Short Message Service (SMS), and other mass market services. SS7 is vulnerable to hacking and this has been known since 2008. In 2014, the media reported a protocol vulnerability of SS7 by which both government agencies and non-state actors can track the movements of cell phone users from virtually anywhere in the world with a success rate of approximately 70%. In addition, eavesdropping is possible by using the protocol to forward calls and also facilitate decryption by requesting that each caller’s carrier release a temporary encryption key to unlock the communication after it has been recorded. Researchers created a tool (SnoopSnitch) which can warn when certain SS7 attacks occur against a phone and detect IMSI-catchers. You can view how researchers managed to hack WhatsApp and Telegram using the SS7 flaw below : WhatsApp Hack Telegram Hack Both the hacks exploit the SS7 vulnerability by tricking the telecom network into believing the attacker’s phone has the same number as the victim’s phone. Once the network has been fooled, anybody, even a newbie can spy on the legitimate WhatsApp and Telegram user by creating a new WhatsApp or Telegram account using the secret code. Once complete, the attacker now controls the account, including the ability to send and receive messages. Even more horrific is the fact that the hacker can also send messages on behalf of the victim, and read confidential messages intended for the victim without ever having to try to break strong encryption protocols. See how easily you can hack WhatsApp and Telegram by fooling the network into believing your are the victim. Source
  12. This New Website Makes It Easy To Learn Linux It's like Code Academy for Linux Ever wanted to learn more about what makes Linux so …Linuxy? Check out Linux Journey, a new website built by Redditor WarbyDarby, and designed to help you learn how Linux works. The site thankfully skips the usual clichéd articles that traditionally pad out introductory sites. You know the kinds of posts I mean: ‘what is Linux?’, ‘how to choose a distro’, ‘how to dual boot with windows’, etc. Not that those aren’t useful. If you don’t know if you want to use Linux they most certainly are. But installing Linux doesn’t instantly unlock a fountain of knowledge in your head. It’s the starting point of long journey So, instead, the aptly-named Linux Journey puts the focus on telling you about the stuff that matters, stuff about Linux itself. A bevy of bitesize lessons aim to teach you how key parts of Linux work they way they do (no matter which distribution you install) as well as how you can use, master and/or learn from them. The website is in the process of being open-sourced. Check out the GitHub page for further details. Why Linux Journey? Sharing a link to his site on Reddit, WarbyDarby says that: “help newcomers learn Linux and I’d really appreciate some feedback.” ”It’s a little more in-depth than some other learning Linux sites, but the reason I made the site was to gain a better understanding of Linux by teaching it to others. “There are portions for each section for exercises and quizzes (which could use a lot of work). I initially wanted to add an interactive console, but it became way too much work for a hobby site.“ Beautifully Designed, And Useful Too The entire site looks beautiful. It’s a tad Material Design, and makes great use of colour, layout and iconography. Subjects are neatly categorised and are broken down into easily digestible ‘lessons’. Most lessons have a set of exercises and an interactive quiz to help you put you’ve just read into practice. Whether you want to get started with vim or emacs, learn more about the Linux kernel, or tool up on practical, useful skills that can help you troubleshoot your own install, do check the site out and head over to Reddit to leave your feedback (and praise!). Visit the Linux Journey Website!!! Source
  13. How to Fix Time Differences in Ubuntu 16.04 & Windows Dual Boot For users who dual boot Ubuntu 16.04 and Windows, you may find the clock time is off that causes time differences after you reboot and switch between the two systems. Here’s how to fix it. Ubuntu maintains the hardware clock (RTC, real time clock) in universal time (UTC) by default while Windows maintains the clock in local time, thus causing time conflicts between Ubuntu and Windows. To fix it, either set Ubuntu to maintain RTC in local time or make Windows uses UTC. Disable UTC and use Local Time in Ubuntu: In previous Ubuntu editions, you can edit the config file to disable UTC. /etc/default/rcS In Ubuntu 16.04, open terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the command below instead: timedatectl set-local-rtc 1 --adjust-system-clock To check out if your system uses Local time, just run: timedatectl you’ll see the local time zone is in use in the Warning section. Finally restart and switch to Windows, adjust system clock time if need and done. Make Microsoft Windows uses UTC: Another way to fix this issue is doing the following changes in Windows, in the case below: First if you’ve switched to local time in Ubuntu, run command in Ubuntu terminal to use back UTC: timedatectl set-local-rtc 0 Restart and select boot into Windows, when you’re in, do: go to Start Menu, search for and launch cmd as Administrator. When the command console opens, paste below command to create a DWORD value to the registry: Reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\TimeZoneInformation /v RealTimeIsUniversal /t REG_DWORD /d 1 For 64-bit Windows, use a QWORD value instead: Reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\TimeZoneInformation /v RealTimeIsUniversal /t REG_QWORD /d 1 Disable the “internet update” for the time and reboot. Source
  14. How to Prevent ZIP Files from Executing Malicious JavaScript Behind Your Back Protect yourself from JS-boobytrapped ZIP files For some years now, you could add JavaScript code to ZIP, RAR, or other types of archive files. When unzipping the file, the JavaScript file would execute, automating various operations. On Windows, this code would run via the Windows Script Host (WSH), an automation technology for Microsoft Windows operating systems, similar to batch files, but one that can work with JavaScript and JScript (Microsoft's version of JavaScript) code. With such powerful features, you sometimes wonder how come it took malware coders so much time to figure out they could abuse this ability to do bad. But they have now, and it's not rosy. "ZIP files boobytrapped with JavaScript abused to spread malware" We've seen ransomware, banking trojans, and all sorts of nasty malware distributed via this method. Attackers craft a malicious ZIP file, append it to an email, and spam hundreds and thousands of users in short-burst campaigns. When users receive the email, they download the file and unzip it, thinking if there is malware, it's probably packed inside the ZIP as an EXE. Without realizing, the damage has already been done via the JavaScript file that silently executed, and the malware has already taken root. But there's a way to prevent this, according to F-Secure, a Finish cyber-security vendor, who's how-to tutorial we're reproducing down below. To prevent automatic execution of a malicious JavaScript file attached to a ZIP file, you'll have to edit the Windows Registry and disable the automatic connection between the JavaScript/JScript code and the Windows Script Host mentioned above. "Let's disable automatic JavaScript execution via Windows Script Host" Open the Windows Search and type in "Regedit" to open the Windows Registry Editor. On the left you have some folders. Open the folders in the following order (path): "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows Script Host\Settings" Once you've reached the last folder called "Settings," go to the panel on the right and right-click anywhere on the background. From the new popup menu, select the "New" and then the "DWORD (32 Bit) Value". This will create a new entry, which you'll have to name "Enabled". Once you've done this, double-click it to open a new popup. In this popup, make sure that you have "0" (zero) entered in the Value field, and that the Base setting is set to Hexadecimal. "Testing that everything works" That's it. Close all the Windows and go for a test. To verify that the Windows Script Host won't open any JavaScript files, first, you'll need some JavaScript files. The easiest way is to download this file right here, which is the jQuery Javascript library. Press CTRL+S to save it from your browser to your computer, and then double-click the file. If you've set up your Windows Registry correctly, the following popup will appear, telling you the Windows Script Host has been disabled. Source
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