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  1. There are some things you can only do from the command line—even in Windows. Some of these tools don’t have graphical equivalents, while others are just plain faster to use than their graphical interfaces. If you’re into using PowerShell over Command Prompt, you should note that all the commands we’re covering in this article work just the same in either tool. And obviously, we can’t possibly cover all the useful commands that these tools offer. Instead, we’ll be focusing on commands that should be useful even if you’re not a command-line person. ipconfig: Quickly Find Your IP Address You can find your IP address from the Control Panel, but it takes a few clicks to get there. The ipconfig command is a fast way of determining your computer’s IP address and other information, such as the address of its default gateway—useful if you want to know the IP address of your router’s web interface. To use the command, just type ipconfig at the Command Prompt. You’ll see a list of all the network connections your computer is using. Look under “Wireless LAN adapter” if you’re connected to Wi-Fi or “Ethernet adapter” if you’re connected to a wired network. For even more details, you can use the ipconfig /all command. ipconfig /flushdns: Flush Your DNS Resolver Cache If you change your DNS server, the effects won’t necessarily take place immediately. Windows uses a cache that remembers DNS responses it’s received, saving time when you access the same addresses again in the future. To ensure Windows is getting addresses from the new DNS servers instead of using old, cached entries, run the ipconfig /flushdns command after changing your DNS server. ping and tracert: Troubleshoot Network Connection Issues If you’re experiencing issues connecting to a website or other network connection issues, Windows and other operating systems have some standard tools you can use to identify problems. First, there’s the ping command. Type ping howtogeek.com (or whatever Internet server you want to test) and Windows will send packets to that address. You can use either a name or the actual IP address. The server at that IP address (in our case, the How-To Geek server) will respond and let you know it’s received them. You’ll be able to see if any packets didn’t make it to the destination—perhaps you’re experiencing packet loss—and how long it took to get the response—perhaps the network is saturated and packets are taking a while to reach their destinations. The tracert command traces the route it takes for a packet to reach a destination and shows you information about each hop along that route. For example, if you run tracert howtogeek.com, you’ll see information about each node the packet interacts with on its way to reach our server. If you’re having issues connecting to a website, tracert can show you where the problem is occurring. For more information about using these commands—and other great tools for figuring out why your network or Internet connection is giving you problems—check out our introduction to troubleshooting Internet connection problems. shutdown: Create Shutdown Shortcuts for Windows The shutdown command lets you shut down or restart Windows. Admittedly, it was more useful in Windows 8 (where the shut down button was harder to access), but still handy no matter what version of Windows you use. You can use the command to create your own shortcuts and place them on your Start menu, desktop, or even taskbar. In Windows 8 and 10, you can even use a special switch to restart your computer into the advanced startup options menu. To use the command at the Command Prompt or when creating a shortcut, just type one of the following: shutdown /s /t 0: Performs a regular shut down. shutdown /r /t 0: Restart the computer. shutdown /r /o: Restarts the computer into advanced options. sfc /scannow: Scan System Files for Problems Windows includes a system file checker tool that scans all the Windows system files and looks for problems. If system files are missing or corrupted, the system file checker will repair them. This may fix problems with some Windows systems. To use this tool, open a Command Prompt window as Administrator and run the sfc /scannow command. telnet: Connect to Telnet Servers The telnet client isn’t installed by default. Instead, it’s one of the optional Windows features that you can install through the Control Panel. Once installed, you can use the telnet command to connect to telnet servers without installing any third-party software. You should avoid using telnet if you can help it, but if you’re connected directly to a device and it requires that you use telnet to set something up—well, that’s what you have to do. cipher: Permanently Delete and Overwrite a Directory The cipher command is mostly used for managing encryption, but it also has an option that will write garbage data to a drive, clearing its free space and ensuring no deleted file can be recovered. Deleted files normally stick around on disk unless you’re using a solid state drive. The cipher command effectively allows you to “wipe” a drive without installing any third-party tools. To use the command, specify the drive you want to wipe like so: cipher /w:C:\ Notice that there is no space between the switch ( /w: ) and the drive ( C:\ ) netstat -an: List Network Connections and Ports The netstat command is particularly useful, displaying all sorts of network statistics when used with its various options. One of the most interesting variants of netstat is netstat -an , which will display a list of all open network connections on their computer, along with the port they’re using and the foreign IP address they’re connected to. nslookup: Find the IP Address Associated With a Domain When you type a domain name (say, into a browser address bar), your computer looks up the IP address associated with that domain name. You can use the nslookup command to find that information out for yourself. For example, you could type nslookup howtogeek.com at the Command Prompt to quickly find out our server’s assigned IP address. You can also perform a reverse lookup by typing an IP address to find out the associated domain name. This isn’t a comprehensive list of all the commands you might find useful, but we hope it’s given you some idea of the many powerful tools lurking under the surface. Article source
  2. [How To] See Which Terminal Commands You Use The Most A lot of us use the command line on a regular basis, be it to do some simple package management with apt or monitor system resources with top. Have you ever wondered which commands you use most often? There’s an easy way to find out. Run the following command in a new terminal window to see a list of your 10 most used terminal commands (and a small tally of how often you’ve used each): history | awk '{print $2}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | head -10 Naturally these stats aren’t of any real practical value. And if you regularly clear the bash cache it may not even be hugely accurate. It also doesn’t count complete commands (e.g, ‘sudo apt update‘). But for curiosity’s sake it can be interesting to see which single commands you enter most often. My results show I’ve used the command ‘cd‘ (used for moving between directories) most often, at a rather puzzling 1,245 times since installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS! Second was ‘sudo‘, and third, with a more modest runtime tally of 345 is ‘top‘. Want to see more than 10 commands? Just edit the number at the end of this command to the number of commands you’d like to see (e.g, -14 to see the top 14, and so on). What are yours? Source
  3. Basic Linux Networking Commands You Should Know Brief: A collection of most important and yet basic Linux networking commands an aspiring Linux SysAdmin and Linux enthusiasts must know. It’s not every day at It’s FOSS that we talk about the “command line side” of Linux. Basically, I focus more on the desktop side of Linux. But as some of you readers pointed out in the internal survey (exclusive for It’s FOSS newsletter subscribers), that you would like to learn some command line tricks as well. Cheat sheets were also liked and encouraged by most readers. For this purpose, I have compiled a list of the basic networking commands in Linux. It’s not a tutorial that teaches you how to use these commands, rather, it’s a collection of commands and their short explanation. So if you already have some experience with these commands, you can use it for quickly remembering the commands. You can bookmark this page for quick reference or even download all the commands in PDF for offline access. I had this list of Linux networking commands when I was a student of Communication System Engineering. It helped me to get the top score in Computer Networks course. I hope it helps you in the same way. Exclusive bonus: Download Linux Networking Commands Cheat Sheet for future reference. LIST OF BASIC NETWORKING COMMANDS IN LINUX I used FreeBSD in the computer networking course but the UNIX commands should work the same in Linux also. CONNECTIVITY: ping <host> —- sends an ICMP echo message (one packet) to a host. This may go continually until you hit Control-C. Ping means a packet was sent from your machine via ICMP, and echoed at the IP level. ping tells you if the other Host is Up. telnet host <port> —- talk to “hosts” at the given port number. By default, the telnet port is port 23. Few other famous ports are: 7 – echo port, 25 – SMTP, use to send mail 79 – Finger, provides information on other users of the network Use control-] to get out of telnet. ARP: Arp is used to translate IP addresses into Ethernet addresses. Root can add and delete arp entries. Deleting them can be useful if an arp entry is malformed or just wrong. Arp entries explicitly added by root are permanent — they can also be by proxy. The arp table is stored in the kernel and manipulated dynamically. Arp entries are cached and will time out and are deleted normally in 20 minutes. arp –a : Prints the arp table arp –s <ip_address> <mac_address> [pub] to add an entry in the table arp –a –d to delete all the entries in the ARP table ROUTING: netstat –r —- Print routing tables. The routing tables are stored in the kernel and used by ip to route packets to non-local networks. route add —- The route command is used for setting a static (non-dynamic by hand route) route path in the route tables. All the traffic from this PC to that IP/SubNet will go through the given Gateway IP. It can also be used for setting a default route; i.e., send all packets to a particular gateway, by using 0.0.0.0 in the pace of IP/SubNet. routed —– The BSD daemon that does dynamic routing. Started at boot. This runs the RIP routing protocol. ROOT ONLY. You won’t be able to run this without root access. gated —– Gated is an alternative routing daemon to RIP. It uses the OSPF, EGP, and RIP protocols in one place. ROOT ONLY. traceroute —- Useful for tracing the route of IP packets. The packet causes messages to be sent back from all gateways in between the source and destination by increasing the number of hopes by 1 each time. netstat –rnf inet : it displays the routing tables of IPv4 sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1 : to enable packets forwarding (to turn a host into a router) route add|delete [-net|-host] <destination> <gateway> (ex. route add 192.168.20.0/24 192.168.30.4) to add a route route flush : it removes all the routes route add -net 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.2 : to add a default route routed -Pripv2 –Pno_rdisc –d [-s|-q] to execute routed daemon with RIPv2 protocol, without ICMP auto-discovery, in foreground, in supply or in quiet mode route add 224.0.0.0/4 127.0.0.1 : it defines the route used from RIPv2 rtquery –n : to query the RIP daemon on a specific host (manually update the routing table) OTHERS: nslookup —- Makes queries to the DNS server to translate IP to a name, or vice versa. eg. nslookup facebook.com will gives you the IP of facebook.com ftp <host>water —– Transfer files to host. Often can use login=“anonymous” , p/w=“guest” rlogin -l —– Logs into the host with a virtual terminal like telnet IMPORTANT FILES: /etc/hosts —- names to ip addresses /etc/networks —- network names to ip addresses /etc/protocols —– protocol names to protocol numbers /etc/services —- tcp/udp service names to port numbers TOOLS AND NETWORK PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ifconfig <interface> <address> [up] : start the interface ifconfig <interface> [down|delete] : stop the interface ethereal & : it allows you open ethereal background not foreground tcpdump –i -vvv : tool to capture and analyze packets netstat –w [seconds] –I [interface] : display network settings and statistics udpmt –p [port] –s [bytes] target_host : it creates UDP traffic udptarget –p [port] : it’s able to receive UDP traffic tcpmt –p [port] –s [bytes] target_host : it creates TCP traffic tcptarget –p [port] it’s able to receive TCP traffic ifconfig netmask [up] : it allows to subnet the sub-networks SWITCHING: ifconfig sl0 srcIP dstIP : configure a serial interface (do “slattach –l /dev/ttyd0” before, and “sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1“ after) telnet 192.168.0.254 : to access the switch from a host in its subnetwork sh ru or show running-configuration : to see the current configurations configure terminal : to enter in configuration mode exit : in order to go to the lower configuration mode VLAN: vlan n : it creates a VLAN with ID n no vlan N : it deletes the VLAN with ID N untagged Y : it adds the port Y to the VLAN N ifconfig vlan0 create : it creates vlan0 interface ifconfig vlan0 vlan ID vlandev em0 : it associates vlan0 interface on top of em0, and set the tags to ID ifconfig vlan0 [up] : to turn on the virtual interface tagged Y : it adds to the port Y the support of tagged frames for the current VLAN UDP/TCP socklab udp – it executes socklab with udp protocol sock – it creates a udp socket, it’s equivalent to type sock udp and bind sendto <Socket ID> <hostname> <port #> – emission of data packets recvfrom <Socket ID> <byte #> – it receives data from socket socklab tcp – it executes socklab with tcp protocol passive – it creates a socket in passive mode, it’s equivalent to socklab, sock tcp, bind, listen accept – it accepts an incoming connection (it can be done before or after creating the incoming connection) connect <hostname> <port #> – these two commands are equivalent to socklab, sock tcp, bind, connect close – it closes the connection read <byte #> – to read bytes on the socket write (ex. write ciao, ex. write #10) to write “ciao” or to write 10 bytes on the socket NAT/FIREWALL rm /etc/resolv.conf – it prevent address resolution and make sure your filtering and firewall rules works properly ipnat –f file_name – it writes filtering rules into file_name ipnat –l – it gives the list of active rules ipnat –C –F – it re-initialize the rules table map em0 192.168.1.0/24 -> 195.221.227.57/32 em0 : mapping IP addresses to the interface map em0 192.168.1.0/24 -> 195.221.227.57/32 portmap tcp/udp 20000:50000 : mapping with port ipf –f file_name : it writes filtering rules into file_name ipf –F –a : it resets the rule table ipfstat –I : it grants access to a few information on filtered packets, as well as active filtering rules Source
  4. 5 Terminal Commands You Think Every Linux User Should Know Way back in February ago we asked you to list the top Terminal commands you thought every Linux user should know. You, awesome folks that you are, replied in your droves. More than one thousand of you sent in a list of command line should-knows. I had initially planned to write this follow-up article a week after asking for suggestions. Evidently I didn’t. Too Many Replies, Too Few Joeys When I launched the poll I was expecting to receive a modest batch of entries. The preceding fortnight’s poll on Cinnamon themes had netted only a couple of hundred replies. Because of the huge response it has taken me a veritable age to sift through, collate, cut-down and create some semblance of a follow-up post. I fully admit that this article is not as good (nor as thorough) as it could (or should) be. But if I don’t publish it now I’m never going to get around to it. Your Responses Were Varied The Terminal is often seen as boring. Foolishly I didn’t give too much thought to things I should’ve, for example, specifying what counts as ‘a command’ — did I mean command of a single word (I did), or a complete command linked by &&’s and a stream of arguments (I didn’t). That lackadaisical lapse on my part meant there was confusion over what exactly I had asked. This made task made much harder by just how diverse some of your replies are! A few lists resembled an instruction manual to the Mars Curiosity rover! Interestingly though, the overall response varies little from the terminal suggestions readers gave five years ago, save for one command (uname). ls was one of the most suggested command, but if I divide replies listing it into those which use ‘ls‘ alone and those which pass an argument to it e.g., ‘ls -n’ etc, then falls further down the list than something like ‘top’ or ‘grep’. For this list I’m going to focus on the core commands you suggested. I will touch on some of the available arguments that are commonly used in conjunction with them in the brief blurb accompanying them, but it is the Please note that what follows below is a brief overview of the command and not a comprehensive instruction manual. #1: apt-get Useful for: Managing packages Apt — Advanced Packaging Tool — is the single most important command on this list because it’s the one you use to manage packages installed. It doesn’t matter if your run a GUI or not: if you use Ubuntu, you use apt. Apt-get has been replaced by the simpler ‘apt’ in Ubuntu 16.04 (though both work). At the time of our poll this wasn’t promoted, or indeed enabled in 15.1. Forgive its omission here. Some example apt commands: sudo apt install application-name sudo apt-get remove application-name sudo apt-get autoclean See the apt man page for further information on its usage. #2: ls Useful For: Finding out which files are where When you want to find a file, or get a quick overview of what files exist in the current directory, you can use the ls command (ls is short for ‘list’). Using ls on its own, with no flag, will list the names of files and folders within the current directory. This omits information like name file, format, size, date modified, etc. To see directory contents with some of its data in a human readable format use the ‘-lh’ flag, like so: ls -lh You can sort files based on size (largest file size to smallest) by passing the ‘-lS’ flag (that’s a lowercase l and a capital S): ls -lS See the ls man page for more things you can do with this command. #3: cd Useful For: Moving around your filesystem The cd command, also known as chdir (change directory), is a command-line command used to change and navigate through directories. Cd will assume you’re in your Home folder (unless otherwise listed). Its use is straightforward. To ‘change directory’ from Home to the Pictures folder you wold run: cd /Pictures Then you could run a subsequent command in this folder, e.g, ‘mkdir’ to create folder, ‘ls’ to list files, and so on. Now let’s go into another folder within Pictures: cd cats/ To move back one directory add a hyphen suffix, like so: cd - To go back to your root/home directory simply run: cd See the manpage for this command to learn more about its uses. #4: sudo Useful For: Doing ninja stuff Sudo… Super Do… Super User… Whatever you call it, you can’t do anything too dramatic to your system without it. That makes it possibly the single most important command on this list. sudo lets you run commands, install software, edit protected files, as the superuser. It requires authentication using your user or root user password. Example commands: sudo edit /usr/share/applications/application.desktop sudo apt-get install application-name The related command sudo !! was also suggested a number of times. This is one of my own personal favourites as it lets you (quickly) run the previous command entered as root when if you forget to add it in. apt install corebird sudo !! See the man page for sudo to learn more. #5: cat Useful For: Seeing what a file contains cat stands for “catenate” (no, I’ve no idea what this word means, either). The cat command read data from files and outputs its content in the terminal. Using cat is the simplest way to display file contents at the command line. Examples cat examplefile.txt To see the same file but with number lines on display pass the -n argument: cat -n examplefile.txt See the cat manpage for more details overview of this command. A Polite Reminder: This Is YOUR List, Not Mine I can already hear some of you itching to go off the rails in the comment section over the commands listed above. But before you do roll off the rails please remember that this list is made up of the top terminal commands suggested by you, the reader. Source
  5. Five Linux Networking Commands To Help With Network Connectivity Issues These five helpful networking commands to monitor connectivity issues on Linux PCs Linux is everywhere and nearly all Linux distros need network connections to offer their services. Network connection failures is one of the major headaches if you are using a Linux based PC or a system. Because if your network fails, all other services will fail and you will be left with a dud system. For this reason, the administrator must have the appropriate tools and commands to analyze and troubleshoot network connectivity. Here are five most helpful Linux networking commands to ensure continuity. ip ip is known as the Swiss Army knife of Linux networking commands because of its ability to work with subcommands. It is designed to work with ip link, to manage and monitor the network link, ip addr to manage IP addresses and ip route to manage the routing table. As a Linux professional you can use ip link show, ip addr show or ip route show to see the current link state, and address configuration, such as router configuration. To go beyond that, use ip addr add dev eth0 10.0.0.10/24 to temporarily assign an IP address to the eth0 network interface. For more advanced users, ip has advanced options setting as well. You can use ip link set promisc on temporarily sets a network interface to promiscuous mode, allowing it to capture all packets sent on the network — not just packets addressed to its own media access control address. The ipcommand and its subcommands work well for troubleshooting connection issues, but everything done with this command will disappear after rebooting your machine. tcpdump Tcpdump is another very popular Linux networking command to analyze network activity. This packet sniffing command captures traffic that goes through a specific network interface. If you run it without any arguments, such as in tcpdump -i eth0, the command will reveal large amounts of packets passing by. Another common option is to use -w, as in tcpdump -i eth0 -w packets.pcap, which writes the result to a file that admins can analyze later using the Wireshark utility. Wireshark Most of Linux users know Wireshark utility, which is also popular with hackers and security researchers. Wireshark is a graphical tool allows you to analyze and sniff network packets. While tcpdump dumps network traffic on the stdout, admins can use Wireshark to click through network communication streams within a convenient graphical interface. This versatile tool can perform a live packet capture, but also can read in a capture file that was created with another tool, such as tcpdump. ethtool ethtool is for advanced Linux users. If you’re working with traditional physical network cards instead of interfaces in a virtual machine, you’ll like ethtool. This tool allows Linux users to monitor and set different properties of the network card. For example, use ethtool -i eth0 to find hardware-related information about your eth0 interface, orethtool -S eth0 to get usage statistics on packets received and sent through that interface. The command ethtool -p eth0 will cause the LED on the back of the network card to blink, which is a useful notification to swap cables on eth3, for example. But before doing so, verify that you’re working on eth3 instead of another network interface. Remember, ethtool is dependent on drivers which you use so you may not always receive useful information. ncat In olden days, Linux users used Telnet to make connection to a specific port in various distros. Ncat or netcat is a replacement for this old telnet utility. Admins, for example, can use ncat somehost 80 to establish a connection on port 80 to a host named somehost, but ncat has more advanced capabilities, as well, such as establishing a connection between two hosts. Use ncat -l 4444 to have ncat listen on one host, and use ncat hostname 4444 to make a connection to that port from another host. By itself, that isn’t very useful, but using that connection in a pipe creates more options. For example, use ncat -l 4444 > somefile on one host andecho hello | ncat hostname 4444 on the other host, which will send the output of the command over the network to write it in a file on the other host. If you use anyone of the the above utilities, you can troubleshoot your networking problems with ease. If you use a different utility to monitor your network traffic, kindly mention the same in comments for other readers. Source
  6. Google Now is a lot like Apple's Siri: it responds to voice commands and can perform lots of cool and practical functions. if you invoke the help command or look at Google's own support page, you'll get only an abbreviated list of the available voice actions. However, there's a new infographic listing around 60 new Google Now voice commands, everything from Communication to Notes & Reminders to Easter Eggs. Here's the full infographic. Chances are good you'll learn some new ways to get more from Google Now. And if you know of any other commands not listed here, by all means share them in the comments. Source
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